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23-11-2011 | General practice | Article

Orosenory exposure, saltiness can affect satiation


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MedWire News: Orosensory exposure time affects fullness when eating savory, salty foods, research shows.

A reduced exposure to food in the oral cavity resulted in a significantly larger food intake compared with longer orosensory exposure.

"In accordance, a shorter orosensory exposure was associated with slower changes in ratings of hunger and fullness during intake," report Dieuwerke Bolhuis (Wageningen University, the Netherlands) and colleagues in the Journal of Nutrition.

Exposure to food in the oral cavity, which defines orosensory exposure, is necessary to establish feedback signals of food intake. By limiting the amount of time food is in the mouth, weaker responses of satiation are reported.

Past studies have shown that orosensory exposures to a sweet taste can predict energy intake and is able to induce a feeling of fullness. Salt, on the other hand, is not a nutrient and does not contain energy, although it does control fluid balances. As a result, it is not known if exposure to salty food has an impact on satiation.

With this in mind, Bolhuis and colleagues studied the effect of orosensory exposure on food intake in 55 healthy men who consumed a low-salt and a high-salt creamy tomato soup. In addition, the researchers studied the effect of salt intensity on bite size.

In the "long" condition, the men were given mouthfuls of soup that resulted in an orosensory exposure time of 24 sec/minute. For the "short" condition, the orosensory exposure time was 12 sec/minute.

Overall, the eating rate was equal in both arms, at 60 g/minute, but participants in the short study arm consumed 34% more soup compared with those in the long condition group. There was no interaction between orosensory exposure time and salt intensity on eating rate.

In addition, the researchers observed that individuals assigned to the high-salt study arm consumed 9% less food than those randomized to the low-salt arm.

The researchers also included a "free" study arm, allowing participants to adjust their bite sizes. In this analysis, individuals in the high-salt arm ate their soup with smaller bite sizes compared with those who received the less salty soup. Individuals free to adjust their bite sizes ate 13% less food than those in the short study arm and 17% more than those in the long study arm.

"Consumption of food with a longer orosensory exposure, eg, with smaller bite sizes, will probably reduce intake within an eating episode," conclude the researchers.

By MedWire Reporters

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