Weight gain after 20 years of age linked to increased risk for CKD
MedWire News: Study findings suggest individuals who gain weight after 20 years of age are at risk for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), even in the absence of the metabolic syndrome.
"Weight gain after maturity is a risk factor for diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke, even in individuals with a normal body mass index [BMI]; however, there is little information about the influence of weight gain after maturity on CKD," say Minako Wakasugi (Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Japan) and colleagues.
They add: "An increase of weight after maturity largely reflects increased fat mass, so such an increase may be more closely associated with the risk of CKD, especially among participants with a normal BMI or waist circumference."
The authors compared the prevalence of CKD among 28,151 Japanese women and 21,110 Japanese men aged 40-59 years with and without weight gain of at least 10 kg after 20 years of age.
Overall, 30.2% of women and 49.7% of men reported a weight increase of 10 kg or more since the age of 20 years. Compared with individuals who did not experience any weight gain, women and men with at least 10 kg weight gain had a higher BMI, larger waist circumference, higher blood pressure, higher blood glucose, and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Individuals who reported weight gain were also more likely to have a history of cardiac disease, higher alcohol consumption, and less physical activity than those who did not gain weight.
The prevalence of CKD among men and women with weight gain was significantly higher than among those without weight gain, at 12.2% and 11.8% versus 9.2% and 8.3%, respectively.
Furthermore, the prevalence of proteinuria among individuals with weight gain was significantly higher than among those without weight gain in both women (5.6 vs 2.9%) and men (8.2 vs 5.9%).
After adjusting for age, smoking, regular exercise, alcohol intake, history of kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia, women and men who gained 10 kg or more were 1.24 and 1.15-fold significantly more likely to develop CKD compared with those without weight gain. This association remained significant even in individuals without the metabolic syndrome.
"Because weight gain is more easily understood by the general population than BMI and can be more accurately measured than waist circumference, advice to limit weight gain to less than 10 kg after 20 years of age is recommended to avoid an obesity-related increase in the risk of CKD, particularly for women," conclude the authors in the journal Clinical and Experimental Nephrology.
By Ingrid Grasmo