Variants in ADIPOQ gene gene may increase CVD risk in Type 2 diabetes
MedWire News: Patients with Type 2 diabetes carrying a polymorphism in the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene may have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly if the patient is also obese, the results of a Japanese study indicate.
The adipokine adiponectin plays an important role in a range of processes associated with CVD, such as the regulation of insulin action, glucose and lipid metabolism, and the inhibition of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, and also has anti-inflammatory effects. Furthermore, reduced adiponectin levels are linked to obesity, insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes, and CVD.
Noting that variations in the ADIPOQ gene can affect serum adiponectin levels, Naoto Katakami, from Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, and colleagues genotyped 2637 Japanese Type 2 diabetes patients for the ADIPOQ G276T polymorphism. The results were then related to the presence of CVD, defined as myocardial infarction and/or cerebral infarction.
As expected, patients with CVD had significantly lower adiponectin levels than those without CVD, at 3.38 g/mL versus 6.96 g/mL, the team reports in the journal Atherosclerosis.
The G allele of G276T was significantly more common in patients with CVD than without, at 77.2% versus 70.9%. There was a tendency for the prevalence of CVD to increase as the number of G alleles increased, at 9.5%, 6.8%, and 5.6% for the GG, GT, and TT genotypes. CVD was significantly more common in patients with the GG genotype than in those with the GT or TT genotypes.
Even after adjusting for conventional risk factors, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the G allele and the GG genotype were significantly associated with CVD, at odds ratios (ORs) of 1.49 and 1.66, respectively. The presence of obesity strengthened the association between CVD and the GG genotype (OR=1.67), but had no impact on the relationship between CVD and other ADIPOQ genotypes.
The researchers conclude: "It is likely that the G allele of the ADIPOQ G276T polymorphism is a susceptibility allele for CVD in Japanese Type 2 diabetic patients, especially when they accompany obesity.
"These results imply that different body weight management regimen[s] based on adiponectin genotype could be helpful for preventing CVD in Japanese Type 2 diabetes patients."
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By Liam Davenport