ACE gene gene variant linked to CAD risk in diabetes
MedWire News: The DD variant of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with Type 2 diabetes, report researchers.
The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) polymorphism, 1675F/A, also has a slight influence on CAD, although only in women, they add.
"Several lines of evidence indicate that variations of renin-angiotensin system genes may confer an increased risk for essential hypertension, preeclampsia, stroke, and cardiovascular disease," write Xi-Yong Yu (Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, China) and colleagues in the Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System.
The team examined five gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in 538 Chinese diabetes patients with (n=220) and without (n=318) CAD. The polymorphisms (ACE I/D, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T, AT1R A1166C, AT2R G1675A, and ACE2 G8790A) were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
The researchers report that the ACE allele frequencies in the patients with diabetes and CAD were 40.9% for the D allele and 59.1% for the I allele, while in those without CAD, the frequencies were 34.7% for the D allele and 65.3% for the I allele.
Multivariate regression analysis showed that the DD genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for CAD at an odds ratio (OR) of 2.05, but the ID genotype did not show such an association.
"The DD genotype is associated with higher tissue and plasma ACE levels, whereas the II genotype is associated with lower levels and the ID genotype with middle levels," explain the authors.
Further analysis showed that the AT2R G1675A polymorphism was associated with risk for CAD in female, but not male individuals, at an OR of 1.54.
In contrast, the three other polymorphisms of the RAS system did not seem to influence CAD risk.
"Diabetic patients with the DD genotype seem to be more prone to CAD based on these results," write the researchers.
They say that, as the study was performed in Chinese patients, its applicability to other ethnic groups is uncertain and warrants further study.
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By Sally Robertson